Isaiah 14 - 18Isaiah Chapter 14 to 18
A Group of Oracles
This series of Oracles deals with the nations round about Israel. The limited future they have is contrasted with the future Glory that Israel will experience while most of these mentioned will have passed from the scene of history.
The Philistine Oracle
28 This Oracle came in the year that king Ahaz died.
Verse 28: The Year that Ahaz Died: That would be six years before the fall of Samaria and the final dissolution of the nation of Israel. This period was one of political chaos for Judah and Israel. The Philistines were, at the time of the giving of the prophecy, over-running the land of both Israel and Judah. This is described earlier as one of the woes of the period recorded in chapters nine and ten where the phrase: "For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still," closes the fourfold description of calamities that accompany the Assyrian invasion. Philistia was used as one of the agents of punishment which God hoped would wake up the nation and cause them the turn to Him but to no avail. Thus Philistia, as God's agent, was not completely subjugated by the Assyrians at the time that Isaiah first "saw" the oracle but they had already suffered some initial assaults by Assyrian armies. Their total subjugation to Assyria was only a few years away from the "year that Ahaz died." Historically they suffered the oppressive dominance of the Assyrians and were subsequently completely dispossessed by the Babylonians who succeeded the Assyrians approximately 120 years later. The Oracle about the Philistines finds its place here in Isaiah because their demise was caused by the rise of Babylon. It is in the right place.
29 Rejoice not, whole Palestine, because the rod of him that struck you is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent
. Verse 29: "out of the serpent's root" The serpent's root is Assyria. The cockatrice is Babylon. See next note for evidence.
30 And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety: and I will kill your root with famine, and he shall slay your remnant. 31 Howl, O gate; cry, O city; you, whole Palestine, are dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times. 32 What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the LORD has founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it. .
Verses 28-32: Oracle of Palestine: This passage ends with further assurance of the longevity of Israel and the demise of all her enemies. As Isaiah has already outlined, not only will Assyria and Babylon be gone while Israel is still in existence, and as we have seen, Moab and Edom will also disappear while Israel will rise again to prominence, so also here is the demise of Philistia briefly described with the assurance that those who put their trust in the future of Zion will not be disappointed. The Philistines were conquered by the Assyrians in Isaiah's lifetime. Isaiah foresaw that the Assyrians would pass away but alas for Philistia, a worse scourge in the form of the Babylonians would then overcome them. In the events that followed according to Isaiah's predictions the Babylonians did succeed the Assyrians and destroyed the Philistine cities and they lost their political national and cultural identity and their offspring would be blended in with other mixed peoples who would become known as Palestinians and be looked upon as a branch of Arabs. This loss of national identity before the return of the Jews from Babylon may be part of the reason why LXX translators never use the word Palestine or Philistine in Isaiah. Here the generic word for foreigner, hoi allophuloi (lit. the foreign race) is used in both instances in verses 29 and 31. Thus by 285 BC Philistia had ceased to be a separately identified "people" who had arrived seemingly from no where and had disappeared from historical view. So the LXX translators called them simply "foreigners" or "another race." (hoi allophuloi ) See notes under 9:12 for LXX use of "Philistine." The Isaiah Targum inserts the word "Messiah" in verse 29 as commentary. The appeal to the future founding of perfected "Zion" in verse 32 is the reason for the Targumist's insertion of messianic times in this context. The Targumist properly understood Isaiah's total message of hope in the future age of glory for the remnant who will survive while all the enemies of Israel are lost in time. Thus "Messiah" is in the context of thought.
Current Calamities and Final End of Moab Isaiah 15 and 16 treat the current, continuing and final punishments of Moab for treachery against Israel and Judah and against God. Jeremiah 48 is a companion passage which also deals with the final (and to Jeremiah) yet future disappearance of Moab as a nation. That chapter should be read in conjunction with these in Isaiah. For instance compare Jeremiah 48:42; "And Moab shall be destroyed from being a people, because he hath magnified himself against the LORD." This verse is significant in that Isaiah predicts the loss of statehood for Moab which took place when Moab was successively occupied by the Assyrians but later restored for a short period and then statehood was permanently dissolved by the Babylonian conquest under Nebuchadnezzar and never restored. Jeremiah makes the prediction that the nation would also disappear as a race which took place much later coincident with the beginning of the Christian era.
Chapters 15 and 16: Moab: Understanding the changing geographical boundaries of Moab will play an important part in interpreting the time of the prophecy. Moab had undergone numerous changes in borders and the extent of territory it held along with the closely related nation of Ammon before Moab's disappearance from among the nations. The basic (but not settled) areas occupied by each extended from the Dead Sea and Jordan River on the west to the undefined eastern border in the desert. The southern border was the northern border of Edom. The Arnon River was the basic northern border of Moab and southern border of Ammon, although this was rarely the case. The Arnon flows from the east into the Dead Sea about midway on its eastern side. Ideally Ammon should have occupied the territory north of the Arnon to midway between the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee. This is the southern half of the region that is called Gilead. Ammon had lost eastern portion of their territory to Amorites not long before the Exodus. The southern half of former Ammonite territory was taken and occupied by the kingdom of Sihon and the northern portion by the Kingdom of Og. Both these kings were defeated by Israeli armies under Moses in a war of extermination and expulsion. The tribes of Reuben and Gad received this territory as their tribal inheritance. However they would compete with the Moabites who extended their territory at times into Israel as far north as the northern part of the Dead Sea. Thus Heshbon, Madeba, Dibon, Mt Nebo is called Moabite although it was originally Ammonite territory. Ammon was pushed to the east while Moab occupied the area inherited by Reubenites in the time of Joshua. This alternate possession and dispossession of Moab is a part of the history of the Judges when the borders changed each generation. Saul and David set new borders and Solomon reigned over all the territory as an extended nation of Israel. The division of the Kingdom of Israel into two parts caused a renewal of Moabite occupation north of the Arnon including Heshbon and Nebo. Later Israel under Jeroboam II would extend the power of Samaria and subjugate Moab all the way to Eilat on the Gulf of Aqabah. Except for Judah, Samaria extended the borders to the areas occupied by the Kingdom of David. But when the Assyrian king Tiglath Pilezer II deported the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh from the Arnon north to include all of Gilead to the Syrian border about 735 BC this gave occasion for the Moabites to reoccupy the area north of the Arnon. Moab suffered some of the calamities pictured by Isaiah when their turn came to be fodder for the Assyrian war machine. However it is clear from Jeremiah 48 the Moab survived and reoccupied the area as far north of the Dead Sea as the area east of the Jordan adjacent to Jerico and Gilgal. This territory is mentioned as a part of Moab by both Isaiah and Jeremiah as that which will be a part of the predicted calamity. this prophesy therefore could not be completely fulfilled until after the time of Jeremiah and when Moab was understood to control Heshbon, Madeba, Elealeh, Jahaz, and Dibon, all north of the Arnon River. It may be of interest that Ammon is not mentioned in these calamities as a nation that was to disappear. Today Jordan, with its capital of Ammon, continues the existence of the Ammonite nation and with statehood. But Moab has long since gone.
1. The burden of Moab. Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence;
Verse 1: Moab. Moab is said to have disappeared as a state by 600 B.C and as a people their identity was lost about 200 AD
2 He is gone up to Bayith, and to Dibon, the high places, to weep: Moab shall howl over Nebo, and over Medeba: baldness shall be on all their heads, and every beard cut off.
Verse 2 He has gone up to Bajith (KJV): 'alah ha-bayith. "Ha- bayith" means "the house." The subject of "He goes up" is Moab as a nation of people. The major temple of Chemosh, god of the Moabites is meant by "the House." The location is the high places (Heb. Bemoth or Bemas at Dimon) Actually Dibon is meant but Dimon is used because of the similarity of the word with one meaning "blood." The flight of Moab before the enemies to the succor of Chemosh is unavailing and useless.
3 In their streets they shall gird themselves with sackcloth: on the tops of their houses, and in their streets, every one shall howl, weeping abundantly. 4 And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh: their voice shall be heard even to Jahaz: therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous to him. 5 My heart shall cry out for Moab; his fugitives shall flee to Zoar, as far as Eglathshelishiah, by the mounting up of Luhith with weeping shall they go it up; for in the way of Horonaim they shall raise up a cry of destruction.
Verse 5: Isaiah's weeping for the Moabite enemies shows his compassion for all mankind. Compare this and 16:11 below with the passage in Jeremiah 48:36; "Therefore mine heart shall sound for Moab like pipes, and mine heart shall sound like pipes for the men of Kirheres: because the riches that he hath gotten are perished."
6. For the waters of Nimrim shall be desolate: for the hay is withered away, the grass fails, there is no green thing. 7 Therefore the abundance they have gotten, and that which they have laid up, shall they carry away to the brook of the willows. 8 For the cry is gone round about the borders of Moab; their howling to Eglaim, and the howling of them to Beerelim. 9 For the waters of Dimon shall be full of blood: for I will bring more upon Dimon, lions upon him who escapes of Moab, and upon the remnant of the land.
1. Send you the lamb to the ruler of the land from Sela to the wilderness, to the mount of the daughter of Zion.
Verse 1: From Sela: For those readers of Greek: The LXX has a confusing use of the word "mey" (pronounced may:) a negative in Greek but it is preposition "from" in Hebrew,, which does not seem to fit the context when it is used where a negative is not called for. This passage in Greek may offer some explanation to the superfluous use of mey in the LXX. "From Sela" in Hebrew is [mey-sela'.] in the LXX. The "mey" is the word "from." "Sela" meaning "rock" is Hebrew for the city of Petra which also means "rock" in Greek and is the capitol of Edom but near the southern border of Moab. Thus the LXX has transliterated the whole form from Hebrew into Greek as [mey petra for mey sela.] It is probable that "mey" is transliterated in other places where the preposition "from" is meant rather than the negative. This may clear up some difficulties in reading Isaiah in the LXX. As for the mention of Petra, which means "rock" (Heb. "sela" is also "rock") the companion passage in Jeremiah (48:28) warns the Moabites to abandon their cities in the day of calamity and seek refuge in "Sela" or Petra not in a rock in general as it is translated. Petra is THE Rock. . In Jeremiah 48:28 the NIV translates the singular "Sela" as "rocks." This is another example of NIV understanding of language but not context. But In fact the plural is a mistake. "Sela" is not a collective noun. Thus Jeremiah's advice to Moab in the day of Calamity is to flee from Moab to Edom and take refuge in the easily defended city of Petra where they would be safe.
Verse 1: "Lamb" and "Zion:" The occurrence of the words "lamb" and "Zion" in this verse as well as the mention of David's throne in verse 5 are the reasons for Targum paraphrases placing "Messiah" in both verses. It is less clear in the Masoretic text of verse one but when the "interpretation" is included there it makes the obvious, but seemingly abrupt, allusion to a messianic meeting with Moab in verse 5 less surprising. That is, if you do not see "Messiah" in verse one it causes verse 5 to "pop up" from no where, -- and that is not Isaiah's style
. 2 For it shall be, that, as a wandering bird cast out of the nest, so the daughters of Moab shall be at the fords of Arnon. 3 Take counsel, execute judgment; make your shadow as the night in the midst of the noonday; hide the outcasts; betray not him who wanders. 4 Let my outcasts dwell with you, Moab; be you a covert to them from the face of the spoiler: for the extortioner is at an end, the spoiler ceases, the oppressors are consumed out of the land. 5 And in mercy shall the throne be established: and he shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and having righteousness.
Verse 4, 5: Outcasts dwell. Established...Tabernacle of David: Hebrew is [hu-kan] for (established). For the explanation of this word and how it refers to the establishment of a sanctuary and a placement of the shekina glory see notes under 4:5. The LXX uses diorthothasetai (for hu-kan). The Greek means: to establish with a reformation of the past. Paul had to have this verse in Isaiah in mind when he used the word diorthoseos translated "reformation" in Hebrews 9:10 There he says that the reformation would take place following the disappearance of the Mosaic sacrificial system.He also says that the Mosaic sacrificial system had not passed away yet but it would soon. See Hebrews 8:13 Thus the setting up of the Tabernacle of David and Messiah sitting on David's throne is coincident with the first coming of Jesus when the sacrificial system was abolished. It is not an end of the world reference. Luke uses an altogether different word for the "time of the restitution of all things" in Acts 3:21, which is an end of the world reference. The latter refers to the restoration of the conditions that existed spiritually and physically before the fall while the former is of a reformation of David's Tabernacle which took place at the first coming of Jesus. This verse coming in the midst of an oracle concerning Moab seems out of place but it is connected with the obligation Moab has to protect the scattered remnants of Israel. They are scattered by Assyrians and Babylonians and refuge is sought in Moab by the remnant of a destroyed nation yet the future of the scattered remnant is given this reassurance here that a throne will be restored in righteousness to a revived Israel upon which the "Branch of David" will sit. The faithful of Moab are admonished to protect the fugitives of a fleeing Israel. Obadiah 14 gives as part of the reason for the destruction of Edom that the Edomites not only plundered the Jewish fugitives from the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem but they closed their borders to those who had escaped and caused them to fall into the hands of their captors. Moab is warned not to take such a stance but to shelter the scattered remnant because God has a plan for them in the future to bless all nations.
6. We have heard of the pride of Moab; he is very proud: even of his haughtiness, and his pride, and his wrath: but his lies shall not be so. 7 Therefore shall Moab howl for Moab, every one shall howl: for the foundations of Kirhareseth shall you mourn; surely they have been struck. 8 For the fields of Heshbon languish, and the vine of Sibmah: the lords of the heathen have broken down their principal plants, they are come even to Jazer, they wandered through the wilderness: her branches are stretched out, they are gone over the sea. 9 Therefore I will bewail with the weeping of Jazer the vine of Sibmah: I will water you with my tears, O Heshbon, and Elealeh: for the shouting for your summer fruits and for your harvest is fallen. 10 And gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful field; and there shall be no singing in the vineyards, neither shall there be shouting: the treaders shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting to cease. 11 Wherefore my heart shall sound like an harp for Moab, and my inward parts for Kirharesh.
Verse 11: see 15:5 above.
12 And it shall be, when it is seen that Moab is weary on the high place, that he shall come to his sanctuary to pray; but he shall not prevail. 13 This is the word that the LORD has spoken concerning Moab since that time. 14 But now the LORD has spoken, saying, Within three years, as the years of an hireling, and the glory of Moab shall be contemptible, with all that great multitude; and the remnant shall be very small and feeble.
Verse 14: Within Three Years: These two chapters cover a long period of time in which Moab is seen to suffer calamities which will ultimately -- in the distant future -- lead to its final destruction and disappearance. Some of the predictions are of imminent events which were inflicted by the Assyrians at the time of their expansion, which includes the dismemberment of the Kingdom of Israel and invasion of Judah described prophetically in chapters 7 12. Within three years of the date of this prophesy Moab was to be invaded by the Assyrians. Although Moab was to be conquered and occupied by the Assyrians they did not suffer extinction as a nation which is part of the long range view of this prophesy. According to Jeremiah 48 (especially Jer. 48:16-18) the destruction of Moab as a nation was still future to Jeremiah's time, approximately 130 years later (600 to 590 BC), therefore the Assyrians began to fulfill but did not complete these pictures of Moabite distress and extinction.
1. The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap.
Verse 1: Damascus taken away: The time of this prophecy is set in the last verse of chapter 16 which plainly shows that the timing is contemporary with Isaiah's writing. The events relative to Moab would be within three years of the issuing of the prophecy. So the events of this chapter are imminent to the time of the writing. The same warnings of impending disaster for Israel and Syria-Damascus have been given in chapters 7 and 8. Included here are the regions of Gilead, the area allotted to Reuben, Gad and Mannasseh beyond Jordan. This is not the first destruction of Damascus nor will it be the last so the time will be coincident with the other events in the chapter.
2 The cities of Aroer are forsaken: they shall be for flocks, which shall lie down, and none shall make them afraid.
Verse 2: Aroer: Arorer is the southern most city on the banks of the Arnon which is the border between Moab-Ammon and the region of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe east of the Jordan. If this is predictive of the devastation of that area and Arorer then the prophecy is dated before the first invasion of Tiglath Pilezer, approximately 735 BC while the fall of Damascus is 731 BC.
3 The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria: they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel, says the LORD of hosts. 4 And in that day it shall be, that the glory of Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall wax lean. 5 And it shall be like after the harvester gathers corn, and reaps the ears with his arm; and it shall be like gathering ears in the valley of Rephaim. 6. Yet gleaning grapes shall be left in it, as the shaking of an olive tree, two or three berries in the top of the uppermost branches, four or five in its utmost fruitful branches, says the LORD God of Israel.
Verse 6: Gleaning Grapes: There is much evidence to show that the captivity of the tribes of Israel was not just as the hyperbolical conclusions that are often reached, of a complete removal of every person and every city into the mountains of Media. Although most of the tribes were carried off and their political descriptions became extinct there were still individuals and even towns which persisted in the land after the removal by the Assyrians. There was a remnant who maintained their personal tribal identity but the tribe as a political unit ceased to exist. 2 Chron 34:6 speaks of a revival in the days of Josiah, long after the fall of Samaria in "cities of Manasseh, and Ephraim, and Simeon, even unto Naphtali." 2 Chron 34:9 records that when the Temple was repaired during Josiah's reign "the money that was brought into the house of God, which the Levites that kept the doors had gathered of the hand of Manasseh and Ephraim, and of all the remnant of Israel, and of all Judah and Benjamin;" Thus there was a remnant still in the land after the fall of Samaria and the captivity of the northern tribes but they no longer had any political form. Isaiah, in verse 6 in this chapter, describes just such a remnant surviving the holocaust of the Assyrians as "gleaning grapes" or a few berries left on a bush or a few olives left after the harvesters passed.
7 At that day shall a man regard his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel. 8 And he shall not regard the altars, the work of his hands, neither shall he respect that which his fingers have made, either the groves, or the images. 9. In that day shall his strong cities be like forsaken shrubs, and a tree top, which they left because of the children of Israel: and there shall be desolation. 10 Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not been mindful of the rock of your strength, therefore shall you plant pleasant plants, and shall set it with strange slips: 11 In the day you shall make your plant to grow, and in the morning shall you make your seed to flourish: but the harvest shall be a heap in the day of grief and of desperate sorrow.
Verses 7 - 11: These verses end this section and what follows is a new section which continues through the end of chapter 18.
What follows in 17:12-14 is introductory to Chapter 18. In particular, the imagery of the noise of war and the rushing sounds and the whirlwind make the connection with, and introduce, the genre of the specific event that is described in chapter 18.
12. Woe to the multitude of many people, which make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the rushing of nations, that make a rushing sound like the rushing of mighty waters! 13 The nations shall rush like the rushing of many waters: but God shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing before the whirlwind. 14 And behold at eveningtide trouble; and before the morning it is not. This is the portion of them that spoil us, and the lot of them that rob us.
Verse 12- 14: Woe to the Multitude: The description of things that will happen to those who assault the nation which is the "apple of His eye" is spoken of in general terms here, relating to any enemy. But the description here of the appearance of the enemies and the things that God determines against those enemies of Israel are specific in each of the separate unnamed cases. One such specific case which is named is revealed in an announcement to the Ethiopians in the next chapter.
Verse 14: and before the morning it is not: " behold at eveningtide trouble" In the chapter that follows this image is precise. The enemies of God's people will disappear. The enemies of God's people are present in the evening but "before the morning it is not." This is true. However it is often necessary to wait patiently for the evening before the fateful morning.
There are several difficulties in the following few verses of chapter 18. The word "Woe" in Hebrew is "hoy" and may not be a warning at all but simply an expression like "listen." "Shadowing" is from the word "tsaltsal." The word "tsal" means shadow but tsaltsal is translated cymbal. The NIV and NASB both translate the word "whirring." It is more likely related to sound than to a shadow. The Latin Vulgate has the following:
"cymbalo alarum" or ringing wings.
In other words the first verse of chapter 18 is saying "Oh Land of Ethiopia, listen to this loud reverberating announcement!" There is something that is to happen to the people of God in His "dwelling place" (Heb. makon ) This word refers to the location of the habitation of the Shekinah in verse 4 below. See the notes in Isa 4:5 on this word. Therefore the event that the Ethiopians are to hear about is to take place in Jerusalem and will, according to verse 7. result in the Ethiopians expressing worship to YHWH. This much is clear.
Another problem of course is in application. Is it another anticipatory vision of a portion of the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib's armies which were forced to leave Egypt by the rumor of the approach of the Ethiopian armies and the disaster at Pelusium? Verses 4 - 6 favor this application which poetically is very much like the description of the loss of the Assyrian forces described in Isaiah 10:33
Or does it as some suppose refer to the current attempt to reestablish the Jewish State in Palestine which includes the return of the Falashiym or Black Jews of Ethiopia, which some think is favored by verses 2,3 and 7.
I favor the first view of Chapter 18 being another flight into poetic hyperbole revealing other aspects of the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib and the aftermath of the Divine visitation. That is, the disposal of 185,000 dead bodies. Prophecies relating to the details of the siege of Jerusalem occupy several chapters (30-34 and others) just before the historical account of the siege in 36 and 37. In chapter 30 the location is given, where many bodies of the 185,000 were carried. That is Tophet, the valley of Hinnom, just outside Jerusalem. It is described in Isa 30:33 as the location of a huge funeral pyre where many of the bodies were burned. For a play on words involving Tophet see Isa 30:32. However in this passage, verse 6 below would indicate that many of the bodies could not be gathered for burning and were left in the open fields and were eaten by vultures and wild beasts and that this feast lasted for some extended period of time. This event would have made a great impact (called an ensign for all the world to see in verse 3 and a blast on a trumpet for all, but particularly for the Ethiopians, to hear) and would certainly reverberate among the people of the world. The angelic visitation and destruction of Sennacherib's military might was just such an ensign to the world system and a Trumpet blast to the observant among the nations. It is no wonder so much scripture is given to this event in many chapters in Isaiah and 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles. The completion of the incredible deliverance resulted in a revival of worship and praise and devotion among the surviving inhabitants of Jerusalem and in Ethiopia. This period of devotion and worship is outlined by Isaiah in later chapters (30 - 34) further on but is introduced here in verse 7 as the result of the termination of the siege (lopping off the branches for the fowl of the air to eat.)
Verse 7 reveals that the news of the Divine intervention reached as far as the Ethiopians which sparked a spiritual response of worship among them. Were there Jews among the Ethiopians? The Falashiym claim a traditional link to the antiquity of their Judaism with Solomon and Sheba. This of course can not be established with historical certainty but the Ethiopians had precipitated the retreat of Sennacherib's armies from Egypt which just preceded his arrival at Jerusalem to view the destruction of his army and hear the elaborate account of the angelic visitation. The news of the event, without doubt, would have reached the regions of Ethiopia and would have caused a season religious revival among those related to Jewish tradition. Pardon my speculation here but it is reasonable. So, now read the chapter, with these things in mind.
1. Woe to the land of [shadowing] reverberating wings, which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia: 2 That sends ambassadors by the sea, even in vessels of papyrus upon the waters, saying, Go, swift messengers, to a nation scattered and peeled, to a people terrible from their previous beginning; a nation meted out and trodden down, whose land the rivers have spoiled! 3 All you inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth, see, when he lifts up an ensign on the mountains; and when he blows a trumpet, hear. 4 For so the LORD said to me, I will take my rest, and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs, and like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest. 5 For before the harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the sour grape is ripening in the flower, he shall both cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks, and take away and cut down the branches. 6 They shall be left together to the fowls of the mountains, and to the beasts of the earth: and the fowls shall summer upon them, and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them. 7 In that time shall the present be brought to the LORD of hosts of a people scattered and peeled, and from a people terrible from their previous beginning; a nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the LORD of hosts, the mount Zion.
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